Space Exploration Chronology: 2040 - 2049 | Human Presence on Callisto | Jovian System Exploration



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2045

Manned base is deployed on the surface of Callisto by collaboration of NASA & ESA


Credit: NASA/www.nasa-academy.org


Mission launched 2041 (depending on success of previous unmanned missions to Callisto and Europa)
Destination reached 2043-45 (depending which method of propulsion is utilized)
Objectives Establish a manned, reusable base of operations on the surface of Callisto. Activate in-situ resource utilization nuclear plant. Use it to explore the Jovian system in the coming decades.
Results Significant milestone in mankind's exploration of the outer space and of adaptation to extreme climates beyond the inner Solar System.


First manned mission to the Jovian moons.


Callisto moon was chosen for its proximity to Jupiter, which has a strong magnetosphere that reaches Callisto, consequently protecting human explorers from radiation.

The moons of Jupiter compose the "Jovian system" which many compare to a mini planetary system. The moons are diverse in their composition and potential for utilization and exploration by human race. Moon called Europa is of primary interest, because it boasts a liquid ocean directly underneath its surface. It is possible that by this time, life has been detected on Europa, by Europa Jupiter System Mission in a previous decade. Human presence in the relative vicinity of Europa could be required to further explore it. Callisto will be used as a base of operation in the Jovian system, including for exploration of Europa. Types of interplanetary space drives that will transport people and cargo, are: Bipomal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion, Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket Propulsion/Nuclear Electric Propulsion, MagnetoPlasmaDynamic Propulsion and Magnetized target Fusion. Artificial gravity is going to be generated on board to prevent deterioration of bone mass among the astronauts. A series of submarines are going to be remotely controlled by astronauts from Callisto, exploring Europa in this manner for 30 days.


Credit: NASA/www.nasa-academy.org
Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept, one of potential propulsion system that will be utilized for the Callisto mission. Notice the illustration of the artificial gravity generated by centrifugal force. This particular rendering was made for the Mars mission.


A total of six astronauts are going to arrive in the Jovian system, with 3-5 of them landing on Callisto. On the surface, a reusable habitat has been set up ahead of the astronaut arrival, along with an in-situ resource utilization nuclear power plant. Total of 400 kW of electricity is produced for the base. Water ice found on the surface could converted for life support of the future explorers. Initial surface stay will last 30 to 180 days. While on the surface, astronauts will perform geological (including drilling operations), chemical and other science. Callisto's subsurface study is of special importance, because it also has potential for a deep, subsurface liquid ocean. As one of the mission requirements, none of the astronauts will experience radiation exposure beyond the established limit.



Credit: NASA/www.nasa-academy.org
Click on the image to enlarge it


Much of physical work and surface exploration is conducted by robots, mostly rovers, but also androids (humanoid robots). Types of these robots had already been tested on the unmanned, automated Callisto mission.


Credit: NASA/www.nasa-academy.org
Types of potential propulsion system for the given mission
Click on the image to enlarge it


Despite strenuous living conditions for prolonged periods of time, there is no lack of volunteers. Four Americans, one representative of the European Space Agency and one of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency are selected. Every member excels at a variety of scientific fields and is in excellent physical shape. Average age: 45. Six astronauts return to Earth approximately 2-8 years after they had left, varies significantly due to uncertainty in the rate of propulsion system advances and its funding.





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